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Autor     Ming-Yi Wu
Titel    Perceptions about Male and Female Managers in the Taiwanese Public Relations Field: Stereotypes and Strategies for Change
Zeitschrift    Public Relations Quarterly
Ausgabe    3
Jahr    2006
Jahrgang    51
Seiten    36-42

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    3


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Dsi/Fragment 057 12 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-09-25 14:51:12 WiseWoman
Dsi, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Wu 2006

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Seite: 57, Zeilen: 12-21
Quelle: Wu 2006
Seite(n): 37, Zeilen: left col., 1 ff
A. Gender and Leadership

In the past few decades, more women have entered the workplace. Thus, gender issues in organizations has become a topic for scholarly investigation. Well-discussed gender-related issues in public relations and management literature include pay equality (e.g., Blau & Kahn, 2000; L. Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001), glass ceiling (e.g, Liff & Ward, 2001; Wrigley, 2002), perceptions about gender issues (Toth & Cline, 1991; Sha & Toth, 2005), sexual harassment (Serini, Toth, Wright, & Emig, 1998), gender stereotypes (Eagly & Karan [sic], 2002), and gender impacts on leadership (e.g., Aldoory, 1998; Aldoory & Toth, 2004; Antonnakis, Avolio, & Sivasubramaniam, 2003). Among these research issues, gender stereotypes and gender impacts on leadership expectations/[leadership styles have been the most controversial research issues because there are contradicting results about whether there are gender impacts on leadership styles.]


Aldoory, L. (1998). The Language of Leadership for Female Public Relations Professionals. Public Relations Journal, 10(2), 73-101.

Aldoory, L., & Toth, E. (2004). Leadership and gender in public relations: Perceived effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership styles. Journal of Public Relations Research, 16(2), 157-183.

Antonakis, J., Avolio, B. J., & Sivasubramaniam, N. 2003. [sic] Context and leadership: An examination of the nine-factor Full-Range Leadership Theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire MLQ Form 5X. Leadership Quarterly [sic], 14: 261-295.

Blau, F. D. & Kahn, L.M. (Fall 2000). Gender Differences in Pay, Journal of EconomicPerspectives[sic], 14, 75-99.

Eagly, A. H.,& Karau, S. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109, 573-598.

Grunig, L.A., Toth, E. L., & Hon, L. C. (2000). Feminist values in public relations. Journal of Public Relations Research, 12(1), 49–68.

Liff, S. & Ward, K. (2001). Distorted Views Through the Glass Ceiling: The Construction of Women’s Understandings of Promotion and Senior Management Positions. Gender, Work and Organization, 8(1), 19–36.

Serini, S.A., Toth, E.L., Wright, D.K. & Eming [sic], A. (1998). Power, Gender, and Public Relations: Sexual Harassment as a Threat to the Practice. Journal of Public Relations Research, 10(3), 193-218.

Wrigley, B. (2002). Glass ceiling? What glass ceiling? A qualitative study of how women view the glass ceiling in public relations and communications management. Journal of Public Relations Research, 14(1), 27-55.

Gender and Leadership

In the past few decades, more women have entered the workplace. Thus, gender issues in organizations have become topic for scholarly investigation. Well-discussed gender-related issues in public relations and management literature include pay equality (e.g., Blau & Kahn, 2000; L. Grunig, Toth, & Hon, 2001), glass ceiling (e.g, Liff & Ward, 2001; Wrigley, 2002), perceptions about gender issues (Toth & Cline, 1991; Sha & Toth, 2005), sexual harassment (Serini, Toth, Wright & Emig, 1998), gender stereotypes (e.g., Eagly & Karan [sic], 2002; Ritter & Yoder, 2004), and gender impacts on leadership (e.g., Aldoory, 1998; Aldoory & Toth, 2004; Antonnakis, Avolio, & Sivasubramaniam, 2003). Among these research issues, gender stereotypes and gender impacts on leadership expectations/leadership styles were the most controversial research issues because there were contradicting results about whether there are gender impacts on leadership styles or not.


References Available Upon Request

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

There is a Toth & Cline 1989 in the references, but no Toth & Cline 1991. There is no Sha & Toth 2005 in the references.

Sichter
(WiseWoman), PlagProf:-)


[2.] Dsi/Fragment 058 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-09-25 15:40:05 WiseWoman
Dsi, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Wu 2006

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[Among these research issues, gender stereotypes and gender impacts on leadership expectations/]leadership styles have been the most controversial research issues because there are contradicting results about whether there are gender impacts on leadership styles. If there are gender differences, whether these differences are affected by gendered stereotypical roles is also a current research issue in the fields of management and communication.

Some researchers believe there are gender differences in leadership effectiveness and leadership styles as perceived by subordinates. For example, Eagly, Makhijani, and Klonsky's (1992) analysis of experimental study results demonstrated that female leaders were evaluated slightly more negatively than male leaders. In particular, male participants tended to devalue female leaders. Some other research findings also demonstrated that there were gender impacts on transformational and transactional leadership styles. For example, the results of Bass and Avolio's (1994) study demonstrated that female leaders tended to display more transformational leadership styles than male managers. In addition, female leaders who used a transformational leadership style were evaluated more positively than male leaders who displayed this leadership style. Other researchers, however, believe there was no gender difference in leadership styles. For example, Komives' (1991) study demonstrated that there was no gender difference in terms of transformational or transactional leadership ratings as perceived by resident hall staffs. The results of Careless' (1998) study also demonstrated that there was no difference in subordinates' evaluations of transformational leadership style for male and female managers.


Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. Eds. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Careless, S. A. (1998). Gender differences in transformational leadership: An examination of superior, leader, and subordinate perspectives. Sex Roles [sic], 39, 887-902.

Eagly, A.H., Makhijani, M.G., & Klonsky, B.G. (1992). Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 3-22.

Komives, S. R. (1991). Gender differences in the relationship of hall directors' transformational and transactional leadership and achieving style. Journal of College Student Development, 32, 155-165.

Among these research issues, gender stereotypes and gender impacts on leadership expectations/leadership styles were the most controversial research issues because there were contradicting results about whether there are gender impacts on leadership styles or not. If there are gender differences, whether these differences are affected by gendered stereotypical roles or not is also a current research issue in the fields of management and communication.

Some researchers believed there were gender differences in leadership effectiveness and leadership styles as perceived by subordinates. For example, Eagly, Makhijani, and Klonsky's (1992) analysis of experimental study results demonstrated that female leaders were evaluated as slightly more negative than male leaders. In particular, male participants tended to devalue female leaders.

Some other research findings also demonstrated that there were gender impacts on transformational and transactional leadership styles. For example, the results of Bass and Avolio's (1994) study demonstrated that female leaders tended to display more transformational leadership style then male managers. In addition female leaders who used a transformational leadership style were evaluated more positively than male leaders who display this leadership style. Some other researchers believe there was no gender difference in leadership styles. For example, Komives' (1991) study demonstrated that there was no gender difference in terms of transformational or transactional leadership ratings as perceived by resident hall staffs. The results of Careless' (1998) study also demonstrated that there was no difference in subordinates' evaluations of transformational leadership style for male and female managers.


References Available Upon Request

Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(WiseWoman), PlagProf:-)


[3.] Dsi/Fragment 064 11 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2020-09-25 15:41:47 WiseWoman
Dsi, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung, Wu 2006

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Seite(n): 37, Zeilen: left col., -5 ff
It is obvious that there were mixed and controversial results of previous gender and leadership studies. Do gender differences actually exist in terms of leadership styles? Or, do some perceived differences result in gender stereotypes? It is obvious that there were mixed and controversial results of previous gender and leadership studies. Do gender differences actually exist in terms of leadership styles? Or, some perceived differences are resulted in gender stereotypes?
Anmerkungen

The source is not given.

Sichter
(WiseWoman), PlagProf:-)