VroniPlag Wiki

This Wiki is best viewed in Firefox with Adblock plus extension.

MEHR ERFAHREN

VroniPlag Wiki

Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Autor     Amanullah Khan / Asma Fozia Qureshi
Titel    Women in the Informal Labor Market in a Developing Metropolis: Agents for Change
Jahr    1996
Anmerkung    Datierung muß verifiziert werden
URL    https://cdn1.sph.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/114/2012/10/RP112.pdf

Literaturverz.   

yes
Fußnoten    yes
Fragmente    3


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Af/Fragment 063 19 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-13 18:03:33 [[Benutzer:|]]
Af, Fragment, Gesichtet, Khan and Qureshi 1996, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 63, Zeilen: 19-37
Quelle: Khan and Qureshi 1996
Seite(n): 3, 4, Zeilen: 3:12-19; 4:6-8.9-18
The Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1990-91 (for recent figures, see chapter 4) provides conclusive evidence of increasing female employment in the informal labor market (Kazi 1993 and Kazi 1991). The informal labor market is characterized by lack of regulation, lack of security in conditions of employment and ease of entry. It includes small, unregulated enterprises, often family-managed or self-employed enterprises that use traditional technology and labor-intensive methods (Qadeer 1983). This segment absorbs most of the available unskilled and uneducated women in urban areas in Pakistan (Kazi 1993).

Paradoxically, women are portrayed as economically unproductive (Habib 1985) and as highly dependent on their husbands, sons and other male members of the family for economic resources and support. The influence of informal-sector work on the status of women in the patriarchal Pakistani households largely remains unexplored. Studies however, have been conducted in Asia and they provide conflicting findings. In the Philippines, women’s contribution to household income was not associated with greater household power (Alcantara 1990), nor did the gainful employment of women through carpet weaving in Iran bring a change in the social conditions of those women (Afshar 1985). Studies in East and South East Asia report that a woman’s financial contribution to her family’s resources is one of the factors that enhances her status within the family and increases her decision making capacity.


Alcantara, A. N., 1990: Gender differentiation: public vs. private power in family decision-making in the Philippines. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Habib, M., 1985: New images for women needed in Pakistan. People 12(2): 20-1

Kazi, S. / Raza, B., 1991: Duality of female employment in Pakistan, Pakistan Development Review 1991 Winter 30 (4 pt 2): 733-40.

Kazi, S. / Sathar, Z. A., 1993: Women in the urban informal labor market in Pakistan: Some economic and demographic implications. International Population Conference.

Qadeer, M. A., 1983: Urban economy. In: Qadeer M. A. (ed) Urban Development in The Third World: Internal Dynamics of Lahore, Pakistan pp113-75. Praeger Publishers, New York.

[page 3]

The Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1990-91 provides conclusive evidence of increasing female employment in the informal labor market (Kazi 1993 and Kazi 1991). The informal labor market is characterized by lack of regulation, lack of security in conditions of employment and ease of entry. It includes small, unregulated enterprises, often family-managed or self-employed enterprises that use traditional technology and labor-intensive methods (Qadeer 1983). This segment absorbs most of the available unskilled and uneducated women in urban areas in Pakistan (Kazi 1993).

[page 4]

Paradoxically, women are portrayed as economically unproductive (Habib 1985) and as highly dependent on their husbands, sons and other male members of the family for economic resources and support.

There has been little systematic study about the informal labor market in Pakistan. The influence of informal-sector work on the status of women in the patriarchal Pakistani households largely remains unexplored. Studies however, have been conducted in Asia and they provide conflicting findings. In the Philippines, women’s contribution to household income was not associated with greater household power (Alcantara 1990), nor did the gainful employment of women through carpet weaving in Iran bring a change in the social conditions of those women (Afshar 1985). Studies in East and South East Asia report that a woman’s financial contribution to her family’s resources is one of the factors that enhances her status within the family (Khoo 1984) and increases her decision making capacity (Sinha 1988).


Alcantara A. N. (1990) Gender differentiation: public vs. private power in family decision-making in the Philippines. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Habib M. (1985) New images for women needed in Pakistan. People 12(2): 20-1.

Kazi S. and Raza B. (1991) Duality of female employment in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review 1991 Winter 30 (4 pt 2): 733-40.

Kazi S. and Sathar Z. A. (1993) Women in the urban informal labor market in Pakistan: some economic and demographic implications. International Population Conference Montreal 1993, 24 August - 1st September. Volume 2: 467-79. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Liege - Belgium.

Qadeer M. A. (1983) Urban Economy. In: Qadeer M. A. (ed) Urban Development in The Third World: Internal Dynamics of Lahore, Pakistan pp113-75. Praeger Publishers, New York.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


[2.] Af/Fragment 086 04 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-22 20:09:28 [[Benutzer:|]]
Af, BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Khan and Qureshi 1996, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
SleepyHollow02
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 86, Zeilen: 4-27
Quelle: Khan and Qureshi 1996
Seite(n): 4, 5, 8, 19, Zeilen: 4: last 3 lines; 5: 1 ff:, 8: 4 ff.; 19: 1 ff.
Understanding a woman’s involvement in household decision making in a patriarchal society like Pakistan is a complex phenomenon. A woman’s involvement in household decision making in poor Pakistani households can be explained partially by her incomeearning status, which in turn is dependent on a multitude of factors. These factors include individual characteristics (such as her age, duration of marriage, literacy and number of living children), socioeconomic status, attitude of family members about women working outside the home, and availability and accessibility to financial support systems. The ability to make decisions, particularly health-related decisions, within the household is important for the survival of poor Pakistani women. A study investigating the cause of delay in 118 pregnant women brought dead to the maternity unit of public hospital in Karachi revealed that social and economic barriers including waiting to seek permission from the husband, were the important reasons cited for not being able to bring these women to the hospital earlier (Jafarey 1993).

A study conducted by Khan and Qureshi (2002) suggests that compared with housewives, a significantly larger proportion of working women reported having greater autonomy as measured either by involvement in or independent domestic decision making as well as in freedom of movement.

Employment of women thus seems to be an enabling process helps to break down the patriarchal system and promote egalitarian relationships within households. Paid work for women is likely to bring internal change within the family by transforming power relationships between men and women (Mhloyi 1994).

The ability to make decisions, particularly health-related decisions, within the household is important for the survival of poor Pakistani women. A study investigating the cause of delay in 118 pregnant women brought dead to the maternity unit of public hospital in

[page 5]

Karachi revealed that social and economic barriers including waiting to seek permission from the husband, were the important reasons cited for not being able to bring these women to the hospital earlier (Jafarey 1991).

[page 8]

Understanding a woman’s involvement in household decision making in a patriarchal society is a complex phenomenon. [...] From these interviews and literature review we also postulated that a woman’s involvement in household decision making in poor Pakistani households can be explained partially by her income-earning status, which in turn is dependent on a multitude of factors. These factors include individual characteristics (such as her age, duration of marriage, literacy and number of living children), socioeconomic status, attitude of family members about women working for cash and outside the home, and availability and accessibility to financial support systems.

[page 19]

Our study also suggests that compared with housewives, a significantly larger proportion of working women reported having greater autonomy as measured either by involvement in or independent domestic decision making as well as in freedom of movement. [...] A study investigating the cause of delay in 118 pregnant women or recently delivered women brought dead to a public hospital in Karachi revealed that economic (36%) and social barriers (33%) including waiting to seek permission from the husband, were the reasons cited (Jafarey 1993).

Employment of women thus seems to be an enabling process helps to break down the patriarchal system and promote egalitarian relationships within households. Paid work for women is likely to bring internal change within the family by transforming power relationships between men and women (Mhloyi 1994).

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann


[3.] Af/Fragment 101 17 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-22 20:16:52 [[Benutzer:|]]
Af, BauernOpfer, Fragment, Gesichtet, Khan and Qureshi 1996, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

Typus
BauernOpfer
Bearbeiter
SleepyHollow02
Gesichtet
Yes.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 101, Zeilen: 17-21
Quelle: Khan and Qureshi 1996
Seite(n): 14, Zeilen: 3 ff.
A study conducted by Khan and Qureshi (2002) indicates that a significantly greater proportion of working women reported independent mobility as measured by being able to go out of their homes without prior permission from their husbands. A greater proportion of working women reported that they could go to the physician (57%) or market place (50%) alone compared to 45% and 31% housewives respectively. The data also indicate that a significantly greater proportion of working women reported independent mobility as measured by being able to go out of their homes without prior permission from their husbands. A greater proportion of working women reported that they could go to the physician (57%) or market place (50%) alone compared to 45% and 31% housewives respectively.
Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(SleepyHollow02) Schumann