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Autor     Hamza Alavi
Titel    Pakistani Women in a Changing Society
Sammlung    Economy and culture in Pakistan: migrants and cities in a Muslim society
Herausgeber    Hastings Donnan and Pnina Werbner
Verlag    Palgrave Macmillan
Jahr    1991
Seiten    124-142
ISBN    978-0-312-04891-4
DOI    10.1007/978-1-349-11401-6
URL    for the article see: http://web.archive.org/web/20000816223128/http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/sangat/pakwomen.htm; book: http://www.springer.com/de/book/9781349114016 Google Books: https://books.google.de/books?id=sPqvCwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA127&ots=7aXoRyB0Lw&dq=%22women%20either%20do%20unskilled%20work%20in%20factories%20or%20operate%20in%20the%20so-called%20'informal%20economy'%20or%20are%20engaged%20in%20domestic%20employment.%22&pg=PA124#v=onepage&q=%22women%20either%20do%20unskilled%20work%20in%20factories%20or%20operate%20in%20the%20so-called%20'informal%20economy'%20or%20are%20engaged%20in%20domestic%20employment.%22&f=false

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    9


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Af/Dublette/Fragment 032 03 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-04-12 12:48:07 Klgn
Af, Alavi 1991, Dublette, Fragment, Gesichtet, KeineWertung, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 32, Zeilen: 3-11
Quelle: Alavi 1991
Seite(n): 132-133, Zeilen: 132: 39-41; 133: 1.6-8.(8-15).17-22
The life of lower middle class women in salaried employment is subject to rather different kinds of pressures. Her working day starts early, for she must feed her husband and children and send them off to school before she herself rushes off to work. In the case of a woman who is the first to be picked up or the last to be dropped home [sic] this can add an hour, or even two, to the long day spent at work. She has to finish many chores like preparing dinner for the family, taking care of children, washing etc. after a long day of work. Very few women happen to have particularly enlightened and helpful relatives (e.g. a mother-in-law) or a co-operative husband who is willing to take over some of the chores. [page 132]

The life of a lower middle class woman in salaried employment is subject to rather different kinds of pressures. Her working day starts early, for she must feed her husband and children and send them off

[page 133]

to school before she herself rushes off to work. [...] In the case of a woman who is the first to be picked up or the last to be dropped off at home home this can add an hour, or even two, to the long day spent at work. [...] [Whilst her husband relaxes with a cold drink under a fan, she has to rush straight into the kitchen to prepare the family evening meal. And there are umpteen little chores to be attended to, young children to be looked after and the family fed and put to bed. Some chores, such as washing clothes and cleaning the house, are inevitably put off until the weekend which therefore is not a time for rest or for demonstrations in aid of women's rights.] [...] Women who happen to have particularly enlightened and helpful relatives (e.g. a mother-in-law) or a cooperative and politically commited husband (a rare commodity), who are willing to take over some of their chores during their short absence, can support meetings concerned with women's rights.

Anmerkungen

Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan); SleepyHollow02


[2.] Af/Fragment 031 40 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-10 11:15:24 Graf Isolan
Af, Alavi 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Education is the key to acceptable and respectable jobs and careers. Lower middle class families in Pakistan would find it degrading to let their women take up jobs as domestic servants or to work on the factory floor i.e. jobs for which education is not a prerequisite. But families who expect their women to take up jobs as teachers or office [clerks (or better) tend therefore to put a higher value on women’s education than was the case before - though financing the education of sons’ still takes precedence.] Education is the key to acceptable and respectable jobs and careers. Lower middle class families would find it degrading to let their women take up jobs as domestic servants or to work on the factory floor (though some are driven to this out of desperation) i.e. jobs for which education is not a pre-requisite. But families who expect their women to take up jobs as teachers or office clerks (or better) tend therefore to put a higher value on women's education than was the case before - though financing the education of sons still takes precedence.
Anmerkungen

No source given. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


[3.] Af/Fragment 032 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-10 11:11:29 Graf Isolan
Af, Alavi 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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[But families who expect their women to take up jobs as teachers or office] clerks (or better) tend therefore to put a higher value on women’s education than was the case before - though financing the education of sons’ still takes precedence.

The life of lower middle class women in salaried employment is subject to rather different kinds of pressures. Her working day starts early, for she must feed her husband and children and send them off to school before she herself rushes off to work. In the case of a woman who is the first to be picked up or the last to be dropped home this can add an hour, or even two, to the long day spent at work. She has to finish many chores like preparing dinner for the family, taking care of children, washing etc. after a long day of work. Very few women happen to have particularly enlightened and helpful relatives (e.g. a mother-in-law) or a co-operative husband who is willing to take over some of the chores.

But families who expect their women to take up jobs as teachers or office clerks (or better) tend therefore to put a higher value on women's education than was the case before - though financing the education of sons still takes precedence. [...]

[...]

The life of lower middle class women in salaried employment is subject to rather different kinds of pressures. Her working day starts early, for she must feed her husband and children and send them off to school before she herself rushes off to work. [...] In the case of a woman who is the first to be picked up or the last to be dropped home this can add an hour, or even two, to the long day spent at work. [...] [Whilst her husband relaxes with a cold drink under a fan, she has to rush straight into the kitchen to prepare the family evening meal. And there are umpteen little chores to be attended to, young children to be looked after and the family fed and put to bed. Some chores, such as washing clothes and cleaning the house, are inevitably put off for the weekend which therefore is not time for rest nor for demonstrations in aid of women's rights.] [...]; women who happen to have particularly enlightened and helpful relatives (e.g. a mother-in-law) or a co-operative and politically committed husband (a rare commodity) who is willing to take over some of their chores during their short absence.

Anmerkungen

No source given. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


[4.] Af/Fragment 073 12 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-10 14:41:31 Graf Isolan
Af, Alavi 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Women’s contribution to the family economy has changed beyond recognition, as compared to conditions forty years ago. These changes seem to be having a greater impact on lower middle class families with monthly income ranges from Rs. 3000 to Rs. 5000 than either working class families or upper class ones. It is in the urban context that women's contribution to the family economy has changed beyond recognition, as compared to conditions forty years ago. These changes seem to be having a greater impact on lower middle class families than either working class families or upper class ones.
Anmerkungen

No source given. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


[5.] Af/Fragment 073 19 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-10 20:52:08 WiseWoman
Af, Alavi 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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In the big cities like Karachi and Lahore, working class consists of workers from the north of the country whose women either do unskilled work in factories or operate in the so-called 'informal economy' or are engaged in domestic employment. In the case of workers whose families live with them in the cities, many of the women either do unskilled work in factories or operate in the so-called 'informal economy' or are engaged in domestic employment.
Anmerkungen

No source given. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


[6.] Af/Fragment 092 07 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-17 21:04:55 Schumann
Af, Alavi 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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7.4 Position of working women in the society

It is a fact that in both rural as well as the urban society, Pakistan remains a rigidly patriarchal society in which women are treated as slaves to spend their lives in the service of a male dominated social system. It is not only a single patriarch, the head of a nuclear family, but the whole male dominated kinship organisation which has a stake in the subordination of women. No woman, even one with an independent career in a city can set up a home on her own, without the ‘saya’ (lit: shade or protection) of a male. A divorced woman or a widow must turn to her father or brother, if they will have her unless she has a grown up son under whose protection she can live. This is a powerful factor of control over women.

In the case of lower middle class families we can identify a two-fold division. On the one hand there are families whose women are educated, sufficiently at least to hold down a ‘respectable’ job. On the other hand there are more traditional families whose women have not received a good education who therefore do not qualify for ‘respectable’ salaried jobs. In these latter cases women contribute to the family economy by taking in home-based work under a putting out system operated by entrepreneurs who are only too happy to exploit this extremely cheap source of labour.

The continuous inflation in the cost of living in Pakistan over the decades has brought about a situation where a man’s wage is no longer sufficient to keep the family. There was therefore a continuous pressure to broaden the base of the family economy. Gradually and steadily, more and more women were forced to find jobs to supplement family incomes. The change is visible and quite striking. Initially only a few occupations were thought to be respectable enough for such women. As the pressure for jobs increased the concept of a 'respectable job' was progressively broadened to take in a wider range of jobs (see also part 6.1). Today one finds women in a wide range of occupations, including laboratory assistants or ticket clerks at railway stations or clerks at post office counters and so on, as well as lawyers, architects, engineers, journalists and broadcasters as discussed earlier. Needless to add, the numbers in the latter categories of occupations are extremely small. With more and more women taking up salaried jobs and in keeping with an increasing number of women taking to higher education, new values have emerged. Women now desire jobs and careers for their own sake so that an in[creasing number of wives of well heeled professionals and women from the upper classes take jobs not out of economic necessity but for self-fulfilment.]

It must be kept in mind, however, that everywhere, in both the rural as well as the urban society, Pakistan remains a rigidly patriarchal society in which women are treated as chattel, 'given' or 'acquired' through arranged marriages, to spend their lives in the service of a male dominated social system. [...] It is not only a single patriarch, the head of a nuclear family, but the whole male dominated kinship organisation which has a stake in the subordination of women. (for an account of biraderi organisation cf.Alavi, 1972). No woman, even one with an independent career in a city can set up a home on her own, without the 'saya' (lit: shade or protection) of a male. A divorced woman or a widow must turn to her father or brother, if they will have her. unless she has a grown up son under whose protection she can live. This is a powerful factor of control over women. [...]

[...]

In the case of lower middle class families we can identify a two-fold division. On the one hand there are families whose women are educated, sufficiently at least to hold down a 'respectable' job. On the other hand there are more traditional families whose women have not received a good education who therefore do not qualify for 'respectable' salaried jobs. In these latter cases women contribute to the family economy by taking in home-based work under a putting out system operated by entrepreneurs who are only too happy to exploit this extremely cheap source of labour. [...]

[...]

The continuous inflation in the cost of living in Pakistan over the decades has brought about a situation where a man's wage is no longer sufficient to keep the family. There was therefore a continuous pressure to broaden the base of the family economy. Gradually and steadily, more and more women were forced to find jobs to supplement family incomes. The change is visible and quite striking. Initially only a few occupations were thought to be respectable enough for such women. As the pressure for jobs increased the concept of a 'respectable job' was progressively broadened to take in a wider range of jobs. [...] Today one finds women in a wide range of occupations, including laboratory assistants or ticket clerks at railway stations or clerks at post office counters and so on, as well as lawyers, architects, engineers, journalists and broadcasters. Needless to add, the numbers in the latter categories of occupations are extremely small. With more and more women taking up salaried jobs and in keeping with an increasing number of women taking to higher education, new values have emerged. Women now desire jobs and careers for their own sake so that an increasing number of wives of well heeled professionals and women from the upper classes take jobs not out of economic necessity but for self-fulfilment.


Alavi, Hamza, 1972: Kinship in West Punjab Villages', Contributions to Indian Sociology, New Series. Vol. VI (for a fuller account see Hamza Alavi, 'The Two Biraderis- Kinship in Rural Punjab' in T. N. Madan (ed) Muslim Societies in South Asia, 2nd edition, New Delhi 1995)

Anmerkungen

No source given. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

The reference to Alavi (1972) has also been deleted (for obvious reasons).

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


[7.] Af/Fragment 093 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-10 20:44:12 WiseWoman
Af, Alavi 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 93, Zeilen: 1-2
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[Women now desire jobs and careers for their own sake so that an in]creasing number of wives of well heeled professionals and women from the upper classes take jobs not out of economic necessity but for self-fulfilment. Women now desire jobs and careers for their own sake so that an increasing number of wives of well heeled professionals and women from the upper classes take jobs not out of economic necessity but for self-fulfilment.
Anmerkungen

Continued from previous page. No source given. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

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(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


[8.] Af/Fragment 102 21 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-13 13:36:10 Schumann
Af, Alavi 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 102, Zeilen: 21-25
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The life of lower middle class women in salaried employment is subject to rather different kinds of pressures. Her working day starts early, for she must feed her husband and children and send them off to school before she herself rushes off to work. In the case of a woman who is the first to be picked up or the last to be dropped home this can add an hour, or even two, to the long day spent at work. The life of lower middle class women in salaried employment is subject to rather different kinds of pressures. Her working day starts early, for she must feed her husband and children and send them off to school before she herself rushes off to work. [...] In the case of a woman who is the first to be picked up or the last to be dropped home this can add an hour, or even two, to the long day spent at work.
Anmerkungen

No source given. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

This is the second time Af uses this text in her thesis. For the first time see Fragment 032 01.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02


[9.] Af/Fragment 103 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-03-13 13:37:03 Schumann
Af, Alavi 1991, Fragment, Gesichtet, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel sysop, Verschleierung

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Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 103, Zeilen: 1-3
Quelle: Alavi 1991
Seite(n): 1 (Internetversion), Zeilen: -
Very few women happen to have particularly enlightened and helpful relatives (e.g. a mother-in-law) or a co-operative husband who is willing to take over some of their chores. [...]; women who happen to have particularly enlightened and helpful relatives (e.g. a mother-in-law) or a co-operative and politically committed husband (a rare commodity) who is willing to take over some of their chores during their short absence.
Anmerkungen

No source given. Nothing has been marked as a citation.

This is the second time Af uses this text in her thesis. For the first time see Fragment 032 01.

Sichter
(Graf Isolan), SleepyHollow02