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Angaben zur Quelle [Bearbeiten]

Sammlung    Risk Assessment Portal
Herausgeber    United States Environmental Protection Agency
Datum    March 2008
Anmerkung    Aek's thesis has been handed in July 16th, 2008..
URL    https://web.archive.org/web/20080325225317/http://www.epa.gov/risk/basicinformation.htm#arisk

Literaturverz.   

no
Fußnoten    no
Fragmente    4


Fragmente der Quelle:
[1.] Analyse:Aek/Fragment 009 09 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-05-23 19:13:59 [[Benutzer:|]]
Aek, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, US EPA Risk Assessment Portal 2008, ZuSichten

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
No.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 8, Zeilen: 9-14
Quelle: US EPA Risk Assessment Portal 2008
Seite(n): 1 (Internetversion), Zeilen: -
While there are many definitions of the word risk, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) considers risk to be the chance of harmful effects to human health or to ecological systems resulting from exposure to an environmental stressor. A stressor is any physical, chemical, or biological entity that can induce an adverse response. Stressors may adversely affect specific natural resources or entire ecosystems, including plants and animals, as well as the environment with which they interact (USEPA, 1992).

United States Environmental Protection Agency, (1992). Framework for ecological risk assessment. Risk assessment forum, USEPA, Washington, D.C. EPA/630/R-92/001.

What is risk? What is a stressor?

While there are many definitions of the word risk, EPA considers risk to be the chance of harmful effects to human health or to ecological systems resulting from exposure to an environmental stressor.

A stressor is any physical, chemical, or biological entity that can induce an adverse response. Stressors may adversely affect specific natural resources or entire ecosystems, including plants and animals, as well as the environment with which they interact.

Anmerkungen

Fascinating! Though the source seems to be named nothing has been marked as a citation. Indeed, the wording is not to be found in the referenced document, but - mostly identical - on the official web-page of the US EPA. Thus this fragment is not to be considered as a "pawn sacrifice"

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)


[2.] Analyse:Aek/Fragment 009 23 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-05-23 19:14:22 [[Benutzer:|]]
Aek, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, US EPA Risk Assessment Portal 2008, ZuSichten

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
No.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 8, Zeilen: 23-32
Quelle: US EPA Risk Assessment Portal 2008
Seite(n): 1 (Internetversion), Zeilen: -
Risk assessment characterize the nature and magnitude of health risks to humans (e.g., residents, workers, recreational visitors) and ecological receptors (e.g., birds, fish, wildlife) from chemical contaminants and other stressors, that may be present in the environment. Risk managers use this information to help them decide how to protect humans and the environment from stressors or contaminants. Risk assessment is, to the highest extent possible, a scientific process. In general terms, risk depends on the following factors:

1) Concentration of a chemical in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air),

2) Contact (exposure) frequency of a person or ecological receptor with the contaminated environmental medium, and

3) The inherent toxicity of the chemical.

What is risk assessment?

EPA uses risk assessment to characterize the nature and magnitude of health risks to humans (e.g., residents, workers, recreational visitors) and ecological receptors (e.g., birds, fish, wildlife) from chemical contaminants and other stressors, that may be present in the environment. Risk managers use this information to help them decide how to protect humans and the environment from stressors or contaminants. [...]

[...]

Risk assessment is, to the highest extent possible, a scientific process. In general terms, risk depends on the following factors:

• How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air),

• How much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and

• The inherent toxicity of the chemical.

Anmerkungen

Fascinating! Though the source seems to be named somewhere above on this page, nothing has been marked as a citation. Indeed, the wording is not to be found in the referenced document, but - mostly identical - on the official web-page of the US EPA. Thus this fragment is not to be considered as a "pawn sacrifice"

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)


[3.] Analyse:Aek/Fragment 010 01 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-05-23 19:36:37 [[Benutzer:|]]
Aek, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, US EPA Risk Assessment Portal 2008, ZuSichten

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
No.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 10, Zeilen: 1-17
Quelle: US EPA Risk Assessment Portal 2008
Seite(n): 1 (Internetversion), Zeilen: -
Following a planning and scoping stage where the purpose and scope of a risk assessment is decided, the risk assessment process usually begins by collecting measurements that characterize the nature and extent of chemical contamination in the environment, as well as information needed to predict how the contaminants behave in the future. Based on this, the risk assessor evaluates the frequency and magnitude of human and ecological exposures that may occur as a consequence of contact with the contaminated medium, both now and in the future. This evaluation of exposure is then combined with information on the inherent toxicity of the chemical (that is, the expected response to a given level of exposure) to predict the probability, nature, and magnitude of the adverse health affect that may occur. In an ideal world, all risk assessments would be based on a very strong knowledge base (i.e., reliable and complete data on the nature and extent of contamination, fate and transport processes, the magnitude and frequency of human and ecological exposure, and the inherent toxicity of all of the chemicals). However, in real life, information is usually limited on one or more of these key data needed for risk assessment calculations. This means that risk assessors often have to make estimates and use judgment when performing risk calculations, and consequently all risk estimates are uncertain to some degree. For this reason, a key part of all good risk assessments is a fair and open presentation of the uncertainties in the calculations and a characterization of how reliable (or how unreliable) the resulting risk estimates really are. Following a planning and scoping stage where the purpose and scope of a risk assessment is decided, the risk assessment process usually begins by collecting measurements that characterize the nature and extent of chemical contamination in the environment, as well as information needed to predict how the contaminants behave in the future. [...]

[...]

Based on this, the risk assessor evaluates the frequency and magnitude of human and ecological exposures that may occur as a consequence of contact with the contaminated medium, both now and in the future.

This evaluation of exposure is then combined with information on the inherent toxicity of the chemical (that is, the expected response to a given level of exposure) to predict the probability, nature, and magnitude of the adverse health effects that may occur. In the ideal world, all risk assessments would be based on a very strong knowledge base (i.e., reliable and complete data on the nature and extent of contamination, fate and transport processes, the magnitude and frequency of human and ecological exposure, and the inherent toxicity of all of the chemicals). However, in real life, information is usually limited on one or more of these key data needed for risk assessment calculations. This means that risk assessors often have to make estimates and use judgment when performing risk calculations, and consequently all risk estimates are uncertain to some degree. For this reason, a key part of all good risk assessments is a fair and open presentation of the uncertainties in the calculations and a characterization of how reliable (or how unreliable) the resulting risk estimates really are.

Anmerkungen

Though the source seems to be named somewhere on the previous page, nothing has been marked as a citation. Indeed, the wording is not to be found in the referenced document, but - mostly identical - on the official web-page of the US EPA. Thus this fragment is not considered as a "pawn sacrifice"

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)


[4.] Analyse:Aek/Fragment 010 19 - Diskussion
Zuletzt bearbeitet: 2017-05-23 19:36:44 [[Benutzer:|]]
Aek, Fragment, KomplettPlagiat, SMWFragment, Schutzlevel, US EPA Risk Assessment Portal 2008, ZuSichten

Typus
KomplettPlagiat
Bearbeiter
Graf Isolan
Gesichtet
No.png
Untersuchte Arbeit:
Seite: 10, Zeilen: 19-22
Quelle: US EPA Risk Assessment Portal 2008
Seite(n): 1 (Internetversion), Zeilen: -
Developing a risk assessment is often an iterative process, which involves researchers identifying and filling data gaps in order to develop a more refined assessment of the risk. This in turn may influence the need for risk assessors and risk managers to refine the scope of the risk assessment further triggering the need for more data or new assumptions. Developing a risk assessment is often an iterative process, which involves researchers identifying and filling data gaps in order to develop a more refined assessment of the risk. This in turn may influence the need for risk assessors and risk managers to refine the scope of the risk assessment further triggering the need for more data or new assumptions.
Anmerkungen

Though the source seems to be named somewhere on the previous page, nothing has been marked as a citation. Indeed, the wording is not to be found in the referenced document, but - mostly identical - on the official web-page of the US EPA. Thus this fragment is not considered as a "pawn sacrifice"

Sichter
(Graf Isolan)